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Anatomical Model

Covid-19 is not a respiratory illness, but one which attacks the lining of blood vessels throughout the body
(Janardhan et al., 2020 doi: 10.1111/jon.12770)

Covid-19 infection often affects areas throughout the body, including the brain, heart, liver, GI tract, endocrine system and skin
(Gupta et al., 2020 doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3)

Mild and asymptomatic initial Covid-19 infections are linked to damage to the brain, heart, kidneys and immune system
(See: Impacts by Body Part)

Covid-19 immunity is short-lived.

Reinfections are common


(Al-Aly et al., 2022 *preprint doi: 10.21203/; Ren et al., 2022 doi: 10.1186/s41256-022-00245-3)

Reinfection increases risk of death, hospitalization and Long Covid by more each time

(Al-Aly et al., 2022 *preprint doi: 10.21203/;

1 in 5 people develop a new health condition following Covid-19 infection
(Bull-Otterson et al. 2022 doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7121e1)

Damage to blood vessels by Covid-19 makes it more likely that blood clots will form, causing strokes, heart attacks and clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
(Chang et al., 2021 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.605908)

Covid-19 is airborne -it moves through the air like cigarette smoke.
Most infection is through inhalation of the virus

(Zhang et al., 2020 doi: 10.1073/pnas.2009637117)


Asymptomatic acute infections can lead to Long Covid. Initial infection severity does not correlate with long term symptoms.
(Huang et al., 2022; doi: 10.1177/10547738221125632)

Covid-19 can be caught in an empty room as the virus can linger in the air after an infected person leaves
(Lewis, 2021 doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-00810-9; Fiorillo et al., 2020 doi: 10.3390/ijerph17093132)

Lateral Flow Tests do not pick up all Covid-19 infections, especially at the start of symptoms.
Do not assume a negative LFT means you don't have Covid-19

(BMJ, 2021 doi: 10.1136/bmj.n238)

There is limited evidence that handwashing prevents Covid-19 spread
(Zhang et al., 2020 doi: 10.1073/pnas.2009637117; Greenhalgh et al., 2021 doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.17270.1)

Covid-19 infections has many possible symptoms:

  • a high temperature or shivering (chills)

  • a new, continuous cough

  • a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste

  • shortness of breath

  • feeling tired or exhausted

  • an aching body

  • a headache

  • a sore throat

  • a blocked or runny nose

  • loss of appetite

  • diarrhoea

  • feeling sick or being sick

Having only one symptom, or very mild initial symptoms does not mean it isn't Covid-19


Apparent recovery does not mean Covid-19 hasn't caused underlying issues such as lung damage, immune dysfunction and blood changes that increase clotting risk
(See: Impacts by Body Part)

Vaccines do not prevent Covid-19 infection. They reduce initial severity but only slightly reduce risk of Long Covid
(See: Long Covid and Vaccines)

Covid-19 Hasn't Gone Away
In fact there's more of it than ever...

1 in 23 people

1 in 34 people

1 in 68 people

Case number estimates for the UK from the ZOE Covid Study (

ZOE data oct 23.png

More people were hospitalised with Covid-19 in 2022 than in 2020 or 2021


In 2023 it is unknown how many have been hospitalised with Covid-19 as testing in hospitals has been significantly reduced. Even symptomatic patients are no longer routinely tested.


What we do know: hospital-acquired Covid-19 cases have increased significantly since hospitals removed Covid-19 protections.
England does not provide this data but in Wales 40-60% of those in hospital with Covid-19 were infected at the hospital.


Why are official case numbers so low?

1. Testing is no longer encouraged

2. Free tests are not available to the majority of the population

3. There is no way to report positive results from privately-purchased tests


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