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Covid-19 Impacts the Genitals and Reproductive Organs

Covid-19 Causes Erectile Dysfunction

• Covid virus particles found in penis tissue of men infected 6-8 months earlier, who later experienced erectile dysfunction

(Kresch et al., 2021 doi: 10.5534/wjmh.210055)

• A Long Covid survey found 15% of men reported sexual dysfunction and 3% reported a decrease in genital size.

(Davis et al., 2021 doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101019)

• Prevalence of erectile dysfunction 3x as common in men after Covid infection (28% vs 9% in controls)

(Sansone et al., 2021 doi: 10.1111/andr.13003)

• Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Thai men reported as 65% following Covid infection

(Harirugsa et al., 2021 doi: 10.21037/tau-21-807)

• Another study showing risk of erectile dysfunction triples following Covid infection.

(Katz et al., 2021 doi: 10.1007/s40618-021-01717-y)

• Study finds that Covid infection leads to 6-fold increased risk of erectile dysfunction, which worsens men’s mental health.

(Hsieh et al., 2022 doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2021.09.002)

• A review paper concludes that Covid infection exerts a detrimental effect on male reproductive function, including erectile function.

(Adeyemi et al., 2022, doi: 10.1080/13685538.2022.2104833)

Covid-19 May Affect Male and Female Fertility

• COVID-19 virus can be found and continues to replicate in the testes even after death

(Costa et al., 2022 *preprint doi: 10.1101/2022.02.05.22270327)

• COVID-19 infects the testes and damages spermatogenesis (sperm production)

(Ma et al., 2020 doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-00604-5)

• Covid virus particles found in penis tissue of men infected 6-8 months earlier, who later experienced erectile dysfunction

(Kresch et al., 2021 doi: 10.5534/wjmh.210055)

• Study shows total sperm number lower in men infected with Covid at 3 month follow up

(Best et al., 2021 doi: 10.5534/wjmh.200192)

• Testes of Covid patients show significant seminiferous tubular injury and reduced Leydig cells- cells that produce testosterone.

(Yang et al., 2020 doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2020.05.009)

• 11 of 26 (42%) men with mild/moderate Covid infection showed incidental (asymptomatic) epididymitis on Doppler ultrasound - a condition that can cause infertility

(Carneiro et al., 2021 doi: 10.1111/and.13973)

• Study finds men who had seemingly fully recovered from Covid infection developed decreased sperm count and motility and abnormally shaped sperm.

(Ghosh et al., 2022 doi: 10.1021/acsomega.1c06551)

• Covid infection in hamsters leads to acute testicular damage, chronic testicular atrophy (shrinking) with hormonal changes and persistent depletion of spermatozoa. Recent vaccination may provide some protection.

(Li et al., 2022, doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac142)

• Covid infection of the male genital tract is seen in rhesus macaques revealing the possible pathologic outcomes of viral replication at these sites.

(Madden et al., 2022, *preprint, doi: 10.1101/2022.02.25.481974)

• A review paper concludes that Covid-19 causes inflammation of the testes resulting in reduced testosterone production. This could lead to defects in sperm production, erectile dysfunction and infertility.

(Selvaraj et al., 2021, doi: 10.1007/s43032-020-00441-x)

• Covid infects and replicates in human testes, causing inflammation, fibrosis (scarring), haemorrage (bleeding) and germ cell apoptosis (death of sperm).

(Costa et al., 2022 *preprint doi: 10.1101/2022.02.05.22270327)

• A case of premature ovarian failure (early menopause) due to Covid infection

(Madaan et al., 2021 Medical Science; 25(112):1286-1290)

• Another case of premature ovarian insufficiency (early menopause) in a 34-year-old following Covid infection

(Wilkins and Al-Inizi, 2021 doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13719)

• Ovarian injury, including declined ovarian reserve and reproductive endocrine disorder, can be observed in a study of women in China infected with Covid.

(Ding et al., 2021 doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.635255)


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